Publications and Deliverables STORE&GO
2016-05-23 Review article on renewable Power-to-Gas: A technological and economic review
The Power-to-Gas (PtG) process chain could play a signiﬁcant role in the future energy system. Renewable electric energy can be transformed into storable methane via electrolysis and subsequent methanation. This article compares the available electrolysis and methanation technologies with respect to the stringent requirements of the PtG chain such as low CAPEX, high efﬁciency, and high ﬂexibility. Three water electrolysis technologies are considered: alkaline electrolysis, PEM electrolysis, and solid oxide electrolysis. Alkaline electrolysis is currently the cheapest technology; however, in the future PEM electrolysis could be better suited for the PtG process chain. Solid oxide electrolysis could also be an option in future, especially if heat sources are available.
2017-10-31 Deliverable 7.2 European Legislative and Regulatory Framework on Power-to-Gas
Deliverable 7.2 of the STORE&GO project as as its objective to identify legal and regulatory challenges at the level of the European Union (EU) for the deployment of power-to-gas, with an emphasis on power-to-SNG. Power-to-gas relates to many dimensions of European energy and environmental law. In the first place, the cross-sectoral nature of power-to-gas links it to both electricity and gas networks and markets, and thus correlated EU legislation included under the 2009 Third Energy Package and proposed Clean Energy for all Europeans Package of 2016. Furthermore, the capacity of power-to-gas to store large quantities of renewable energy requires to reflect on the proposed legal framework on energy storage under the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package. As power-to-gas cannot only be considered to be an energy storage technology, but also an energy conversion/production activity which produces a gas from electricity generated from renewable sources, more legal issues are raised under the Renewable Energy Directive, such as the question whether the choice of carbon source for the methanation process is conditioned in anyway. Finally, EU environmental law and the law applicable to the safe production and supply of chemicals are discussed in order to assess which requirements flow therefrom for developers/operators of power-to-gas installations. The Deliverable contains concrete legal recommendations which may promote the deployment of power-to-gas in the European energy system.
2017-08-29 Deliverable 8.1 Exploring the future for green gases
The EU reference scenario assumes that by 2030 the overall gas consumption will not be much different, albeit that by then the current (2016) import share of natural gas of 72% will have increased to about 79%. The target of the EU is to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80 – 95% below 1990 levels by 2050. This means that natural gas can no longer be used by that date, unless the CO2 linked with the burning of natural gas can be stored underground or otherwise compensated by additional mitigation.
So far, the greening of the gas system has typically focused on the introduction of biogas and bio-methane, almost exclusively produced with the help of anaerobic digestion technology.
The greening of the gas system, based on biogas and biomethane, has proceeded to a share of about 4%. Estimates as to how this share may increase towards 2030 differ, because this progress will obviously depend on incentives, public acceptance, and technology learning curves.
So, a relatively new development in ‘g reening’ gas is the power-to-gas technology in which renewable power from wind and solar energy is turned into green hydrogen. The green hydrogen can be used directly but also be further converted in either green methane via methanation, or into green liquids through various conversion technologies.
2017-04-29 Deliverable 6.1 Report on opportunities and options for PtG in the power system
This report aims to investigate the role of Power-to-Gas (PtG) in the electrical system, in particular drawing its possible use in the different sectors of the electricity system (ES). Since one of the partners involved has special expertise in the operation of gas-fired power plants, coupling PtG with such plants was chosen as first application for a deeper investigation. The study includes the technical and legislative aspects involved in the use of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) as fuel for gas turbines.